Elevated arterial blood pressure is caused by numerous risk factors such as:
These are the factors that we can influence and thus prevent the development of elevated blood pressure.
In addition to these factors, we should not overlook genetic factors, i.e. inheritance:
If parents suffered from hypertension the children are also prone to elevated blood pressure. So far, we cannot influence our genes, but if preventive measures are put in place on time, we can prevent the early occurrence of hypertension. Therefore, we focus prevention of elevated blood pressure and suggest the following:
A person with elevated arterial blood pressure most commonly manifests no symptoms whatsoever, and that is the reason why arterial hypertension is also called “the silent killer”.
Some persons manifest non-specific symptoms of hypertension such as:
Due to these non-specific symptoms the disease remains undiagnosed for a long time, i.e. usually is discovered by accidental measuring that shows elevated values. In the worst-case scenario it is discovered only when hypertension complications are developed, i.e. heart attack, stroke, rhythm disorders, changes on the blood vessels, kidney disease, changes on the optic fundus.
It is also important to make note of the following:
Normal blood pressure includes the values between 120-129/80 mmHg. The pressures 130-139/85-89mm, are considered high normal and require introduction of medication in cases when:
Conversely, in absence of damage, the so called non-pharmacological measures are recommended: quitting smoking, dietary changes to reduce fatty foods, losing weight, regular exercise, adequate intake of water…
Before menopause women tend to suffer less from cardiovascular diseases, but with menopause they become a risk group for cardiovascular diseases (lower estrogen being the main culprit).
Statistical data show that:
Women who had lower blood pressure before menopause with onset of menopause:
Lowering the diastolic pressure (the bottom one) by 10mmHg, reduces the risk of stroke by 30%, and the risk of heart attack by 23%.
At an older age (after 50 yrs) systolic hypertension (elevated top pressure values) usually develops, due to atherosclerotic processes on the blood vessels – their elasticity is reduced.
Elevated blood pressure in women in this age group is associated with 6-fold increase of coronary diseases, as compared to 3-fold rise in men. Therefore, elderly women must pay attention to non-pharmacological therapy (regular exercise – walks, quitting smoking, losing body weight, reduced intake of salt, fatty food, alcohol and sugar) and attend scheduled follow-up visits and take prescribed medicines regularly.
For appropriate treatment of hypertension in menopause, individual approach is recommended for both antihypertensive medicines and mandatory non-pharmacological measures.
Hormonal therapy does not treat hypertension. This treatment is not recommended for patients with breast cancer, estrogen-dependent-tumors, liver and kidney failures.